Before relationships ranging from calcium supplements and you can prostate disease try clarified, it is sensible for men to consume a maximum of step 1,000 to at least one,two hundred milligrams/day’s calcium supplements (dieting and capsules joint), which is demanded of the As well as Diet Panel of one’s Institute out-of Medication (look for RDA) (9)
8 age) were randomized to daily calcium supplements supplements (step 1,two hundred milligrams) to possess couple of years. Whenever you are no boost in the risk to possess prostate cancer tumors might have been claimed while in the good 10.3-12 months pursue-up, calcium supplements resulted in a life threatening chance reduced the period comprising regarding 2 years just after therapy visited 2 years just after therapy ended (150). Within the a look at brand new books composed in 2009, the usa Agencies getting Medical care Browse and you can Quality indicated that maybe not all the epidemiological training receive a connection anywhere between calcium supplements consumption and you will prostate cancer tumors (151). The latest review stated that six regarding 11 observational training failed to get mathematically tall positive connections ranging from prostate disease and calcium consumption. Yet, in the four knowledge, every single day consumption off 921 so you can dos,100 mg away from calcium was discovered to be in the an enhanced chance of development prostate cancer when compared with consumption starting out-of 455 to a single,000 mg/big date (151). Inconsistencies among degree suggest cutting-edge affairs between your risk activities to have prostate cancer tumors, also reflect the problems away from examining the outcome out-of calcium intake from inside the free-traditions some body. Such, the fact that people who have higher dairy and you can/otherwise calcium intakes were found to be very likely to getting involved with healthy lifestyles or more attending find medical help can decrease new mathematical significance of a link having prostate cancer risk (152).
Do calcium supplements improve exposure having cardiovascular disease?
Numerous observational education and randomized managed trials have raised inquiries out-of the potential unwanted effects regarding calcium supplements to your cardio risk. The research of information from the Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Grounds and you will Prevention (OSTPRE) possible analysis discovered that users regarding calcium supplements amongst 10,555 Finnish people (years 52-62 many years) got a good 14% higher risk of creating coronary artery condition as compared to low-enhance profiles during the an indicate follow-upwards from six.75 years (153). The prospective study of 23,980 people (35-64 yrs . old) of one’s Heidelberg cohort of European Potential Investigation for the Cancer and you can Diet cohort (EPIC-Heidelberg) observed that extra calcium consumption was certainly of the risk out of myocardial infarction (stroke) however on likelihood of stroke otherwise cardiovascular illnesses (CVD)-related mortality after a suggest pursue-up off eleven many years (154). But really, employing calcium (?400 milligrams/time vs. 0 mg/day) try associated with the a greater threat of CVD-associated mortality in 219,059 boys, although not for the 169,170 ladies, as part of the National Institute out of Health (NIH)-AARP Dieting and Wellness research and you may then followed getting a suggest several months away from twelve ages. CVD death inside boys was also found to be notably high with overall (weight loss including extra) calcium supplements intakes of 1,500 milligrams/time and you will over (155).
In addition, the secondary analyses of two randomized placebo-controlled trials initially designed to assess the effect of calcium on bone health outcomes also suggested an increased risk of CVD in participants daily supplemented with 1,000 mg of calcium for five to seven years (156, 157). In the Auckland Calcium Study of 1,471 healthy postmenopausal women (ages ?55 years), calcium supplementation resulted in increased risks of myocardial infarction and of a composite cardiovascular endpoint, including myocardial infarction, stroke, or sudden death (156). The analysis of data from 36,282 healthy postmenopausal women randomized to receive a combination of calcium (1,000 mg/day) and vitamin D (400 IU/day) or a placebo in the Women’s Health Initiative/Calcium-Vitamin D supplementation study (WHI/CaD study) initially reported no adverse effect on any cardiovascular endpoints with calcium (and vitamin D) compared to placebo (158). A re-analysis was performed with data from 16,718 women who did not take personal calcium supplements (outside protocol) during the five-year study (157). Although criticized on the approach taken (134, 159), the investigators estimated that women supplemented with calcium and vitamin D had a 16% increased risk of clinical myocardial infarction or stroke and a 21% increased risk of myocardial infarction compared to those who received a placebo (157). However, in another randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial – the Calcium Intake Fracture Outcome (CAIFOS) study – in elderly women (median age, 75.1 years), the supplementation of 1,200 mg/day of calcium for five years was not found to increase the risk of vascular disease or related mortality (160). The WHI/CaD data re-analysis also failed to show an increased risk of mortality due to myocardial infarction or coronary artery disease with calcium therapy (156). Also, after an additional follow-up of 4.5 years at the end of the treatment period in the CAIFOS trial, the investigators reported fewer cases of heart failure-related deaths with supplemental calcium compared to placebo (160). In another randomized, placebo-controlled trial of calcium and/or vitamin D3 (RECORD trial), the evaluation of the effect of 1,000 mg/day of calcium (alone or with 800 IU/day of vitamin D) reported no significant increase in the rate of mortality due to vascular disease in 5,292 participants ages 70 years and older (161). A recent cross-sectional analysis of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) evaluated the association between calcium intakes and cardiovascular mortality in 18,714 adults with no history of heart disease. No evidence of an association was observed between dietary calcium intake, supplemental calcium intake, or total calcium intake and cardiovascular mortality in either men or women (162).